Thursday, May 8, 2008

ANXIETY


INTRODUCTION
Anxiety is a normal emotion. It would be abnormal if we did not react to certain situations by becoming anxious. It becomes abnormal if there is no apparent cause for the anxiety, or if the anxiety is out of proportion to the cause. or if it interferes with our daily life. Low or Moderate Anxiety Levels tend to improve our reactions and performance. However, as anxiety levels increase to High reactions and performance deteriorate.

ANXIETY STATES
[Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Anxiety Reaction]

In this disorder there is Free Floating anxiety. The patient feels continuously anxious but does not know why. They are tense all the time and have all of the physical effects of chronic anxiety, with Palpitations, Air Swallowing and Gastric and Bowel disturbances. Its Onset is usually in early adulthood and it affects women twice as often as men. There is evidence that there is a genetic influence.

INSIGHT PSYCHOTHERAPY
To uncover unconscious conflicts and increase self-knowledge.

RELAXATION TECHNIQUES
To help the patient gain some voluntary control over Autonomic Nervous System reactions.

PHYSICAL 
ANXIOLYTICS are usually prescribed for these patients and this creates problems when medication is withdrawn. Tricyclic Antidepressants are often used especially if there are Panic Attacks.

PROGNOSIS
Prognosis is poor with about one third of patients recovering completely. As the patient gets older the anxiety tends to reduce. At one time Psycho-surgery used to be carried out in order to relieve the symptoms.

PHOBIC STATES
In this disorder the anxiety is Focused on a particular object or situation. The phobia may be about a fear of Open or Closed Spaces or objects such as animals or insects. The fear is out of all proportion to the stimulus and often results in a Panic Attack where the patient Hyperventilates. and loses all ability to think clearly. The individual often realises that the fear is abnormal but can do nothing to control the reaction. They will go to great lengths to avoid the situation
which causes their fear. Some are so frightened of Open Spaces that they become trapped in their homes. often for years at a time. One patient I knew in Bahrain had not left her room for fifteen years. Within twelve weeks of treatment she was able to walk out in the streets.

PHOBIAS MAYBE DIVIDED INTO:
 SIMPLE: Fear of a specific Object. Animal or Situation eg : Snakes, Insects. Enclosed Spaces
 SOCIAL: Fear of Embarrassing themselves in a Social Situation eg: Eating or Speaking in Public
 AGORAPHOBIA: Fear of Open Spaces or Crowds. It is the most common Phobia [60%].

SIGNS and SYMPTOMS
Even thinking about the phobic object or situation provokes anxiety. As the object or situation becomes nearer anxiety increases until there is a PANIC ATTACK.

BEHAVIOUR THERAPY
Operates on the principal that the Phobic Object is a Conditioned Stimulus and that the Phobic Response is a Learned
Response. The most common form of Behavior Therapy used is a GRADUAL DECONDITIONING [SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION]. The patient is gradually brought close to the Phobic Stimulus under Controlled Conditions while at the same time using Relaxation Techniques.

The patient makes a list of all the anxiety provoking situations from Least provoking to Most provoking. The patient then goes through this list in their imagination. As their Anxiety Increases they are supported psychologically and taught to use Relaxation Techniques to control that Anxiety. After they have learned to control the Anxiety in their imagination they learn to do this in the actual Phobic Situation.

FLOODING is another type of Behavior Therapy where the patient is confronted by the Phobic Stimuli without them being given the chance to escape. Eventually they "Bum Out" their fear and learn to accept that the situation cannot harm them. This is not used very often as it is very unpleasant and the results from Systematic Desensitization are just as good.

PHYSICAL 
Anxiolytics are often prescribed with Tricyclic Antidepressants to control the Panic Attacks.

NURSING CARE
  • Nurses who have the appropriate training may be entirely responsible for the patient and carry out the Behaviour Therapy instead of a Psychologist. The results from clinical trials show that . Specially Qualified Nurses are just as effective as Psychologists.
  • It is very important to build up a trusting relationship with these patients. The nurse has to be Calm and Competent to serve as a Role Model and give Psychological Support during Panic Attacks and Desensitization.
  • The nurse's role in Behavior Therapy will depend on the type of therapy prescribed. Often these patients will be treated as Outpatients or in their Own Homes by a Community Psychiatric Nurse.
  • It is the responsibility of the nurse to become expert in the techniques of Psychological therapy used with these patients. As well as giving Psychological Support they can reinforce specific Behavioral Techniques.
KEY POINTS:
1. Anxiety is a normal emotion. It becomes abnormal if there is no apparent cause for the anxiety, or if the anxiety is out of proportion to the cause, or if it interferes with our daily life.
2. Low or Moderate Anxiety Levels tend to improve our reactions and performance. High anxiety levels decrease performance.
3. In this disorder there is Free Floating anxiety. The patient feels continuously anxious but does not know why.
4. Treatment includes Insight Psychotherapy Relaxation Techniques, Anxiolytics and Tricyclic Antidepressants.
5. In Phobias the anxiety is Focused on a particular object or situation The fear is out of out proportion to the stimulus and often results in a Panic Attacks.
6. Phobias may be divided into Simple, Social and AGORAPHOBIA.
7. Treatment consists of Behavior Therapy, Systematic Desensitization Flooding, and Anxiolytics with Tricyclic Antidepressants
8. It is very important to build up a trusting relationship with these patients. The nurse has to be Calm and Competent to serve as a Role Model and give Psychological Support.
9. It is the responsibility of the nurse to become expert in the techniques of Psychological therapy used with these patients. As well as giving Psychological Support they can reinforce specific : Behavioral Techniques.

10 comments:

Anonymous said...

Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder which consists of the fear of experiencing a difficult or embarrassing situation. You get anxiety attacks out of the blue, when your life is going along the normal path when suddenly without any warning; terror binds you in its grip. As a result, severe sufferers of agoraphobia may become confined to their homes, experiencing difficulty traveling from this "safe place". http://www.buy-xanax-online-now.com/

Anonymous said...

The anti-anxiety medicine xanax is wholly capable of facilitating your war against anxiety as it is the most widely recognized medication to treat anxiety disorders, especially generalized anxiety disorders and altogether Xanax can treat a whole lot of anxieties related to panic disorders and depression. Before you move on to administer Xanax and treat your anxiety, get hold of Xanax tidbits from the site http://www.pill-care.com

Anonymous said...

Some of the medications to treat anxiety and stress such as Xanax can be immensely beneficial for you if you swallow the pill as per the instructions of the doctor. But if you get hold of the idea that crushing Xanax and then taking it or snorting xanax would be better for treating your anxiety, then you are totally wrong. It is never beneficial to snort Xanax as the binders and fillers in the Xanax pill that are meant to be digested only via swallowing the pill, would be automatically fixed to your body and terrible harm would inevitably ensue. http://www.xanax-effects.com /

Sergio Negrinnie said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Sergio Negrinnie said...

Hello this information about ANXIETY is very useful, I want to add this information about Anxiety is a psychological and physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components.These components combine to create an unpleasant feeling that is typically associated with uneasiness, fear, or worry. I would like to know if Buy Generic Viagra can produce anxiety. Anxiety is a generalized mood condition that occurs without an identifiable triggering stimulus. As such, it is distinguished from fear, which occurs in the presence of an observed threat. Additionally, fear is related to the specific behaviors of escape and avoidance, whereas anxiety is the result of threats that are perceived to be uncontrollable or unavoidable.

Kathy R. said...

I get really worried about some considerably stupid things. It gets to a point where it affects other ppl, and i hate it, Any tips to relax and loosen up? And begin to act even slightly normally. Any things that have worked for you in the past? Things that dont take months of planning or anything, little things that can help that are realistaclly achievable, thanks x
Generic Viagra

Gloria "UYA" said...

I had anxiety before, but I got a lot better now, thanks to www.medsheaven.com I HIGHLY recommend ordering from them, they have a section on their website for anxiety pills and the best part there is no prescription required!!! uc

Isma said...

Hello .. firstly I would like to send greetings to all readers. After this, I recognize the content so interesting about this article. For me personally I liked all the information. I would like to know of cases like this more often. In my personal experience I might mention a book called Generic Viagra in this book that I mentioned have very interesting topics, and also you have much to do with the main theme of this article.

willy said...

To start with I would like to congratulate the cradores of this blog, mainly because when I read it I enjoyed it very much. A few years ago I attended a conference called guanacaste costa rica real estate, at that conference had many interesting topics. Perhaps readers may find no relationship between the blog and this conference, but if someday can attend, would realize that there is much to do with this blog.

Lucaz Brewz said...

You made some good points there. I did a search on the topic and found most people will agree with your blog.
Blogger how when you visit my site,my Site created for men's health,
Here the best method for you and get the best Penis Enlargement Pills today.